All You Need To Know About Cervix and Cervical Cancer

Cervix and Cervical Cancer

We are all aware that cancer is a disease in which cells in specific parts of the body grow out of control and it is this disease that causes cancer. Cervical cancer is caused by the uncontrolled growth of cells in the cervix. It is the fourth most common type of cancer found in female patients. First things first: before we get into more details about cervical cancer, could you please explain what the cervix is? Where exactly do you feel it in your body? And lastly, what effect does it have?

The cervix is the passageway that connects the vagina to the uterus. It shields the uterus and the sterile environment that surrounds it from the rest of the body. It is more similar to a tube that is somewhere between one and two inches in length. The opening in the cervical wall is referred to as the os, with the uterine end being referred to as the internal os and the vaginal end being referred to as the external os.
Because of its elastic properties, it can change both in length and width as a woman goes through her menstrual cycle. Not only will the internal and external os open and close throughout the course of the cycle, but they will also move higher or lower in position depending on the phase of the cycle they are in. In addition to this, the secretions of the cervix can change the consistency of the mucus, causing it to be thinner or thicker and either more acidic or alkaline.
During pregnancy, the os will move downward and remain tightly closed. This will continue throughout the pregnancy. As the pregnancy progresses and the foetus moves more downwards and closer to the vagina, the primary responsibility of the cervix is to ensure that the foetus remains contained within the uterus. On the other hand, once the gestational period has come to an end and it is time for labour to begin, it will open up and become more dilated in order to make room for the baby to pass through and exit the uterus. During ovulation, the cervix will expand and become more open, making it possible for sperm to enter the egg and cause fertilisation. During this time, the secretions will also become more watery and alkaline, which will promote the survival and movement of sperm.

The factors that lead to cervical cancer

Infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) is thought to be the cause of nearly all cases of cervical cancer. The majority of infections with this virus are caused by sexual contact. Even though an HPV infection can clear up on its own without causing any symptoms, long-term infection with the virus can cause cervical cancer. If you have one or more of the following risk factors for cancer:

Early sexual activity

Multiple sexual partners

Persistent infection of the cervix with human papillomavirus (HPV)

Having a large number of children born to her.

Use of oral contraceptives for an extended period of time

Weak immune system

Different types of STDs

prevalence across India

India accounts for 27% of the total number of cases of cervical cancer worldwide. Cancer of the cervix causes the death of more women in India than in any other country. There are close to 60,000 deaths a year caused by cervical cancer, in addition to the nearly one lakh new cases that are reported each year. This rate, however, is falling as a result of the implementation of national awareness and screening programmes, which are being carried out by the government of India in collaboration with a variety of pharmaceutical companies.

Treatment and screening procedures

Because it has a clearly defined and relatively long pre-cancer stage, which can be detected by regular screening tests and follow up, cervical cancer can be prevented. This is because the pre-cancer stage is relatively long. On the other hand, the vast majority of women in India are unaware of the screening.

The PAP test is a screening method that is utilised in order to identify cases of cervical cancer. In this type of examination, a small tissue sample is taken from the cervix and analysed to look for any abnormalities or signs of infection in the cells. This also helps diagnose any infections that may be present in the lower reproductive tract. In the event that any abnormality is discovered, additional biopsies and tests will be performed to establish whether or not the patient has cancer. This screening should be performed once every three years on all women between the ages of 21 and 65, as recommended by international guidelines.

When you should make an appointment with your physician

Symptoms of abnormal vaginal bleeding include periods that are abnormally long and heavy, as well as bleeding after menopause.

Excessive vaginal discharge that is accompanied by a putrid odour

Painful intercourse

Experiencing bleeding after sexual activity

Pain that does not go away in the pelvic region or the lower abdomen

Even if you exhibit more than one of these symptoms, this does not necessarily mean that you have cancer. However, it is strongly recommended that you seek medical attention as soon as possible before the problems become even worse.


Cervical cancer is one of the few types of cancer that can be effectively treated and managed if it is detected early and treated appropriately. This is only the case, however, if it is managed appropriately. By using condoms and engaging in safe sexual behaviour, you can reduce your risk of becoming infected with the human papillomavirus, also known as HPV. There are vaccines currently on the market that can protect against HPV infection. The age range of 9–14 years is the one that is recommended for beginning vaccinations, and subsequent doses are administered as prescribed by the schedule.

The Indian Academy of Paediatrics Committee on Immunisation (IAPCOI) suggests that the HPV vaccine be made available to any and all females who are in a financial position to purchase it. There are currently two vaccines that can be obtained in India, and both of them are secure and effective. Both of these have received certification from the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI), as well as approval from the Food and Drug Administration in the United States and the European Medicines Agency. Additionally, the World Health Organization has prequalified them both. Vaccination, on the other hand, does not provide a 100% guarantee of protection against cervical cancer; consequently, regular checkups and screenings are still strongly advised.